Physical fitness is a term, which has different meaning for different people. For a common man to have a good physique (appearance) is a symbol of physical fitness. For a doctor proper functioning of various important systems of our body is physical fitness. Actually physical fitness of an individual may be explained as the capacity to do the routine activities without getting undue fatigue, to meet emergencies, to face stress situation and still have more energy to do some work with better recovery process.
Physical fitness has various components and various sports activities as well as other physical activities develop varying amount of each component. For example, sports that include constant movements such as swimming and running, improve heart and lungs efficiency whereas, gymnastics improves flexibility. The various components of physical fitness are being described below:
This the quality that enables one to continue engaging in reasonable vigorous physical activities for extended periods of time where the required cardio-respiratory adjustment to the activity is build up. Or it is the hearts ability to deliver blood to working muscles and their ability to use it (running long distance).
It is the muscles ability to continue to perform without fatigue. Or it is the ability to do sports movements with desired quality and under condition of fatigue. Or it is the ability to resist fatigue.
Strength is very important component of physical fitness. Strength is ability of our muscles to overcome the resistance or act against resistance. Strength provides base for the development of other components of fitness for an individual. In games and sports the following four types of resistance is overcome by the sports person:
• Resistance of implements: for example, resistance of throwing implements in throwing events, overcoming in weight lifting.
• Resistance of own body: for example, running, jumping.
• Resistance of opponents: for example, wrestling, judo, boxing etc.
• Functional resistance: for example, swimming, cycling, rowing etc.
It may be defined as the ability of an individual to perform movements’ faster rate. It is the ability to move the body or various body parts as fast as possible. We cannot have remarkable changes to increase the speed because it is a genetic factor. In our body we have white muscle fibres and red muscles fibres. If we have more number of white muscle fibres we will be able to perform well in short duration physical activity. If we have more number of red muscles fibres we should take part in long duration activities.
It is the ability to perform the movement greater range or amplitude. It is defined as the range of movement around the joints. Commonly it is known as stretch ability, elasticity, suppleness, mobility etc. it is specific to given joint is actually more dependent upon the musculature surrounding a joint then on the actual body structure of the joint itself.
This is also very important component of fitness which helps us to avoid various accidents or sports injuries. It is also helps an individual to learn a skill more easily.
Coordinative abilities are used in place of agility. Mainly coordinative abilities depend on the Central Nervous System. The coordinative abilities are those abilities of an individual which enable the individual to do various related activities properly as well as efficiently. Our accuracy, rhythm, flow and constancy depend on our coordinative abilities. These abilities can be of various types such as balance ability, rhythm ability, adaptation ability and reaction ability. Such type of abilities can be enhanced through general or specific exercises. Such types of ability are much helpful in gymnastic and diving.